This course explores major theories and models for understanding how children and adolescents learn; seeks to understand the complex interaction among biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors that influence learning; applies this knowledge about learning to learning and teaching in schools; and investigates the interplay between school culture and students' cultures and the implications for student achievement. The course begins with a sharp focus on the student as an individual learner, then centers on the individual working with a teacher, and finally, centers on the learner in cultural context. Explanations of structural barriers to student achievement are examined including stereotype threat, curriculum-home communication mismatch, the privileging of certain approaches to learning, and solutions for teachers are investigated. The importance of close observation of children/adolescents and careful consideration of actual student achievement data in sociocultural context are stressed. Field experiences required.